She Figures 2015 comprehensive methodology: New research & innovation output indicators

July 2016

This report presents the comprehensive methodology implemented by the She Figures 2015 research team in producing the new research and innovation (R&I) output indicators that were integrated into the She Figures 2015 publication. These indicators consist of primary data sources computed as part of the project using external data sources (i.e., bibliographic databases covering the peer-reviewed scientific literature to measure sex disparities in scientific production, and patent applications to measure sex inequalities in innovation) and are as follows:

  1. Ratio of women-to-men scientific authorships
  2. Ratio of women-to-men international co-authorship rate
  3. Ratio of women-to-men scientific quality/impact
  4. Ratio of women-to-men inventorships
  5. Proportion of a country’s scientific production including a Gender Dimension in its Research Content (GDRC)

This methodology report presents the general rationale for the inclusion of these indicators. For each indicator, a short methodological note presents its definition, source of data, availability over time, international availability, and comparability, as well as its calculation method. This calculation includes a full account of the computation of confidence intervals and other statistics used in reporting the accuracy of the indicators. Appendices provide deeper explanations for some items to allow a third party to reproduce the data computed for the new R&I output indicators included in She Figures 2015.

She Figures 2015, the fifth edition of the She Figures, investigates the level of progress made towards gender equality in R&I in Europe. It is the main source of pan‑European, comparable statistics on the representation of women and men amongst PhD graduates, researchers and academic decision‑makers. The data also shed light on differences in the experiences of women and men working in research—such as relative pay, working conditions and success in obtaining research funds. She Figures 2015 also presents for the first time the situation of women and men in scientific publication and inventorships, as well as the inclusion of the gender dimension in scientific articles. Despite progress, She Figures 2015 reveals that a range of gender differences and inequalities persist in European R&I.

Science-Metrix was the lead contractor for the calculation of indicators, the development of new indicators, and the drafting of the publication and associated methodological handbook for the She Figures 2015, working in close collaboration with ICF International, KU Leuven, Beyond 20/20, tKorps bvba and Imprimerie Centrale. The overall impetus and coordination of the She Figures 2015 came from the European Commission’s Directorate General for Research and Innovation. Extensive contributions were made by the Helsinki Group on Gender in Research and Innovation and their Statistical Correspondents, as well as representatives from Eurostat, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and the European Institute for Gender Equality (EIGE).

  • 1 of 0