(2001). Methods of using patents in cross-country comparisons. Scientometrics, 54(1–2), 15–30.
Drawing its insights from traditions in scientometrics, this paper proposes to gather data by computing the number of patents granted rather than applications for them. Given the precedent set by the Frascati manual, which prompted countries to compute data on the R&D of institutional sectors and to exclude the contribution of households, it is recommended to distinguish clearly between independent and institutional inventors. This paper also suggests computing data for multiple addresses in order to reveal patterns of collaboration. Finally, it is important to consider that patents are not only an indicator of novelty but also an indicator of intellectual property, hence, the paper suggests measuring both dimensions.